19 Jan 2020

End of the Universe | How the Universe will End | Big Freeze, Big Rip, Big Crunch & Big Bounce

Here we will discuss 4 different theories, that tells how our beautiful universe will be destroyed eventually. As we know, nothing will last forever in this universe, not even the universe itself.
The 4 theories about the end of the universe that we are going to discuss here are-

End of the Universe Theories

1.The Big Freeze (Heat Death)
2.The Big Rip
3.The Big Crunch &
4.The Big Bounce
Now we will discuss each of these theories about how the universe will end one by one-

End of the Universe Video


1.The Big Freeze (Heat Death) Theory

Actually the fate of the universe is determined by its density. This scenario, in combination with the big rip scenario, is currently considered as the most important hypothesis. According to the big freeze theory, continued expansion of the universe would result in a universe that would eventually approach absolute zero temperature. In this scenario, stars are expected to form normally for 10^12 to 10^14 years, i.e. for 1 to 100 trillion years, but eventually the supply of gas needed for the formation of stars will be exhausted. The existing stars will cease to shine as they will run out of fuel. This will cause the universe to grow darker and darker with time. These dying stars will eventually turn into black holes and our universe will be dominated by these black holes. The black holes also will not survive for infinite time as they emit Hawking radiation.
A Related scenario is the heat death. According to it, the universe goes to a state of maximum entropy, in which everything is evenly distributed, there are no gradients- which are needed to sustain information processing, one form of which is the life.

2.The Big Rip Theory

According to the big rip theory, the universe expands so fast that the gravitational force of attraction cannot compensate it and tears it apart.
If the density of dark energy increases with time, it will cause the rate of acceleration of the universe to increase. It will lead to a steady increase in the Hubble constant. As a result, eventually all the matter present in the universe will disintegrate into unbound elementary particles and radiation. As the dark energy density and the expansion rate of the universe becomes infinite, the end state of the universe will be a singularity.

3.The Big Crunch Theory

The big crunch hypothesis states that, the universe will not continue to expand forever. This Theory assumes that the average density of the universe will be enough to stop its expansion and it will start to contract. Because of This continued contraction, all the matter and spacetime in the universe would collapse Into a dimensionless singularity. This is the reason why it is named as the big crunch. At this stage, the universe will be at a point from where it started- The Big bang.
This scenario allows the big bang to occur immediately after the big crunch of a preceding universe.
If this happens repeatedly, it creates a cyclic model. This cyclic model of the universe is also known as an oscillatory universe.
Theoretically, the cyclic Universe could not be reconciled with the second law of thermodynamics: Entropy would build up from oscillation to oscillation and cause heat death. According to current evidences, the universe is not closed. This has caused the cosmologists to abandon the oscillating universe model.

4.The Big Bounce Theory

According to the Big Bounce hypothesis, the universe will continuously repeat the cycle of a big bang, followed up with a big crunch.
So the big Bounce is a hypothetical cosmological model for the origin of the known universe.
The big Bounce theory assumes the big bang as the beginning of a period of expansion which is followed by a period of contraction. So the big Bounce means, the big crunch followed by the big bang. It is really exciting to think that we could be living at any point in an infinite sequence of universes or conversely, the current Universe could be the very first iteration.

So That is all for now, about the theories, that suggest the fate of our universe.


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