Showing posts with label PAM. Show all posts
Showing posts with label PAM. Show all posts

## 1 Sept 2018

### Types of Modulation (Classification of Modulation)

Here we will discuss what is modulation and different types of modulation.
So let's first see the definition of modulation and it's classification -

## Definition of Modulation

Modulation is a process by which some characteristic (amplitude/frequency or phase) of a high frequency carrier wave is varied in accordance with the instantaneous value of the message signal (modulating signal).

Now we will see the classification of modulation-

## Types of Modulation

 Types of Modulation

Modulation can be classified broadly into two types -
*Continuous wave modulation
*Pulse modulation

## Continuous Wave Modulation

In this type of modulation the carrier wave is continuous. Continuous wave modulation is a technique of modulation where some parameter (amplitude, frequency or phase) of a sinusoidal carrier is varied in accordance with the instantaneous value of the modulating signal.

In the pulse modulation the carrier wave is in the form of pulses. In Pulse modulation some parameter (amplitude, width or position) of the pulsed carrier wave is varied as per the instantaneous value of the modulating signal.

The continuous wave modulation can again be classified into two types-
*Amplitude Modulation (AM)
*Angle Modulation

Amplitude Modulation

 Message Signal and the Carrier Wave

 Amplitude Modulated Wave (AM Signal)

In amplitude modulation the amplitude of the carrier wave is varied according to the instantaneous value of the modulating (message) signal. Therefore the information is present in the amplitude variations of the carrier wave.

Angle Modulation
It may be defined as the process in which the total phase angle of a carrier wave is varied in accordance with the instantaneous value of the modulating signal.

The Angle modulation is again of two types-
*Frequency Modulation (FM)
*Phase Modulation (PM)

Frequency Modulation

 Frequency Modulation (FM)

In frequency modulation, the frequency of the carrier wave is varied in accordance with the instantaneous value of the modulating signal.

Phase modulation

 Phase Modulation (PM)

In Phase modulation, the phase of the carrier wave is varied according to the instantaneous value of the modulating signal (message signal).

Now let's discuss the pulse modulation

Pulse Modulation
In Pulse modulation some parameter (amplitude, width or position) of the pulsed carrier wave is varied as per the instantaneous value of the modulating signal.

Pulse modulation is of 3 types
*Pulse Amplitude Modulation (PAM)
*Pulse Width Modulation (PWM)/Pulse Duration Modulation (PDM)
*Pulse Position Modulation (PPM)

Pulse Amplitude Modulation

 Pulse Amplitude Modulation (PAM)

In pulse amplitude modulation, the amplitude of the pulsed carrier wave is varied according to the modulating signal value.

Pulse Width Modulation

 Pulse Width Modulation (PWM)/Pulse Duration Modulation (PDM)

In this type of modulation, the width of the pulsed carrier is varied as per the value of the modulating signal

Pulse Position Modulation

 Pulse Position Modulation (PPM)

In Pulse position modulation, the position of the pulsed carrier is varied as per the value of the modulating signal.

## 14 Oct 2017

### COMPARISON OF PAM, PWM, PPM MODULATION TECHNIQUES

In the last post we discussed different types of pulse modulation techniques, like Pulse Amplitude Modulation (PAM), Pulse Width Modulation (PWM), Pulse Position Modulation (PPM) and Pulse Code Modulation (PCM).
In this post we will deal with the comparative study of PAM, PWM and PPM.
Here we will compare these 3 different pulse modulation techniques, on the basis of various parameters.

# Comparison of PAM, PWM and PPM Modulation Techniques Video [HD]

## 1.Definition of PAM, PWM and PPM

PAM- In pulse amplitude modulation, the amplitude of the pulsed carrier wave is varied according to the modulating signal value.
PWM- In pulse width modulation, the width of pulsed carrier is varied as per the value of the modulating signal.
PPM- In pulse position modulation, the position of the pulsed carrier is varied as per value of modulating signal.

## 2.Waveform of PAM, PWM and PPM

Waveform of PAM, PWM and PPM is given in the image below. Click on the image to enlarge it.

 Comparison of PAM, PWM, PPM Waveforms

## 3.Variable Parameter of the Carrier in PAM, PWM and PPM

PAM- Amplitude
PWM- Width
PPM- Position

PAM- In amplitude variations of the pulses
PWM- In width variations of the pulses
PPM- In position variations of the pulses

## 5.Type of Carrier Wave Used in PAM,PWM and PPM

PAM- Train of pulses
PWM- Train of pulses
PPM- Train of pulses

#PULSE MODULATION TECHNIQUES (PAM, PWM, PPM, PCM)

## 6.Bandwidth of PAM, PWM and PPM

PAM- Bandwidth depends on the width of the pulse
Bandwidth requirement is low
PWM- Bandwidth of the channel depends on rise time of the pulse
Bandwidth requirement is high
PPM- Bandwidth depends on rise time of the pulse
Bandwidth requirement is high

## 7.Instantaneous Power in PAM, PWM and PPM

PAM- Power varies due to change in amplitude of the pulses
PWM- Instantaneous power varies due to change in width of the pulses
PPM- Instantaneous power is constant due to constant amplitude and width of the pulses

## 8.Noise Interference in PAM, PWM and PPM

PAM- Noise interference is maximum and it is difficult to remove noise
PWM- Noise interference is less due to constant amplitude
PPM-  Noise interference is less due to constant amplitude

PAM- Similar to Amplitude Modulation (AM)
PWM- Similar to Frequency Modulation (FM)
PPM- Similar to Phase Modulation (PM)

## 10.Synchronization Between Transmitter And Receiver in case of PAM, PWM and PPM

PAM- Synchronization between transmitter and receiver is not required.
PWM- In this case too no need of any synchronization
PPM- In Pulse position modulation synchronization is required. The transmitter sends synchronizing pulses.

FREQUENCY SPECTRUM OF AMPLITUDE MODULATION (WAVEFORMS AND EQUATIONS DERIVATION)

AMPLITUDE MODULATION (TIME DOMAIN EQUATIONS AND WAVEFORMS)

STEP INDEX OPTICAL FIBER (MULTIMODE AND SINGLE MODE STEP INDEX FIBERS)

PULSE MODULATION TECHNIQUES (PAM, PWM, PPM, PCM)

OPTICAL FIBER: STRUCTURE AND WORKING PRINCIPLE

PULSE AMPLITUDE MODULATION (PAM)

COMPARISON OF PAM, PWM, PPM MODULATION TECHNIQUES

PULSE WIDTH MODULATION (PWM)

CONTINUOUS TIME AND DISCRETE TIME SIGNALS (C.T. AND D.T. SIGNALS)

NEED AND BENEFITS OF MODULATION

PULSE POSITION MODULATION (PPM)

OPTICAL FIBERS IN COMMUNICATION: COVERS ALL IMPORTANT POINTS

OPTICAL FIBER SOURCES (DESIRABLE PROPERTIES)

SAMPLING THEOREM AND RECONSTRUCTION (SAMPLING AND QUANTIZATION)

SUPERPOSITION THEOREM (BASICS, SOLVED PROBLEMS, APPLICATIONS AND LIMITATIONS)

Digital Modulation Techniques (ASK, FSK, PSK, BPSK)/ Amplitude, Frequency and Phase Shift Keying

Conventional AM Vs DSB-SC Vs SSB-SC Vs VSB (Comparison of AM Systems)

What are Microwaves and their Applications (Uses) in various fields

Basic Structure of Bipolar Junction Transistor (BJT) - BJT Transistor - Working and Properties

Polar Plots of Transfer Functions in Control Systems (How to Draw Nyquist Plot Examples)

Generation of Binary Phase Shift Keying (BPSK Generation) - Block Diagram of Binary Phase Shift Keying (BPSK)

Low Level and High Level Modulation Block Diagram (AM Transmitter Block Diagram)

Block Diagram of CRO (Cathode Ray Oscilloscope), Components of CRO and CRT with Structure and Working

Slope Overload Distortion and Granular (Idle Noise), Quantization Noise in Delta Modulation

Frequency Translation/Frequency Mixing/Frequency Conversion/Heterodyning (Basic Concepts and Need)

Quadrature Phase Shift Keying Modulation (QPSK) Basics, Waveform and Benefits

Pulse Code Modulation (PCM) Vs Differential Pulse Code Modulation (DPCM)

# Pulse Modulation Techniques

In this post, I will discuss different kinds of pulse modulation techniques like Pulse Amplitude Modulation (PAM), Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) or Pulse Duration Modulation (PDM), Pulse Position Modulation (PPM) and Pulse Code Modulation (PCM). Here we will also see Pulse Modulation waveforms. But Before starting the topic, it is important to understand the basic difference between Continuous Wave Modulation and Pulse Modulation.

#NEED AND BENEFITS OF MODULATION

# Pulse Modulation Techniques Video [HD]

## Difference between Continuous Wave Modulation and Pulse Modulation

In Continuous Wave Modulation (Amplitude Modulation, Frequency Modulation, Phase Modulation) the carrier wave used is continuous in nature, while in case of pulse modulation, the carrier wave is in the form of pulses.
So now let's discuss different types of Pulse Modulation Techniques in detail.

## Classification of Pulse Modulation Techniques

Pulse modulation can be categorized broadly into two types-
#Analog Pulse Modulation and
#Digital Pulse Modulation

The Analog Pulse modulation can again be of two types-
#Pulse Amplitude Modulation (PAM)
#Pulse Time Modulation (PTM)

The Pulse Time Modulation (PTM) can further be classified into two types of modulation-
#Pulse Width Modulation (PWM)/Pulse Duration Modulation (PDM)
#Pulse Position Modulation (PPM)

Pulse Code Modulation (PCM) is a digital pulse modulation technique.

You can see the classification of pulse modulation, in the image given below
(Click on the image to enlarge it)-

 Classification of Pulse Modulation Techniques

To see the classification of all types of modulations including pulse modulation and continuous wave modulation, look at the image given below (Click to enlarge)-

COMPARISON OF PAM, PWM, PPM MODULATION TECHNIQUES

 Classification of all Modulation Techniques

Here we will discuss all types of pulse modulation techniques i.e. Pulse Position Modulation (PPM) and also Pulse Code Modulation (PCM).
Here we will see the definition of pulse amplitude modulation and waveform of pulse amplitude modulation.

## Pulse Amplitude Modulation (PAM)

Definition:-
The modulation technique in which the instantaneous amplitude of the pulsed carrier is varied according to the modulating signal (message signal) is called as pulse amplitude modulation.

## Waveform of pulse amplitude modulation

Look at the image given below carefully to understand the formation of pulse amplitude modulated wave. (Click the image to enlarge)-

 Pulse Amplitude Modulation Waveform

Here in this image, you can see, three waveforms. The first waveform is of modulating signal (message signal), the second one is of the pulsed career wave and the third waveform is of the pulse amplitude modulated wave (PAM).
The message signal can have multiple frequencies and variable amplitude. Here we have used a sinusoidal message signal. The carrier wave that we have used here, is a train of pulses having high frequency. Since we know that in Pulse modulation, the carrier wave is in the form of pulses.
Now we will understand how can we make pulse amplitude modulated wave (PAM).
As we have discussed that in Pulse amplitude modulation, the instantaneous amplitude of the pulsed carrier is varied according to the modulating signal (message signal).

Now look at the image shown above very carefully, observe that, as the amplitude of the modulating signal (message signal or baseband signal) increases, the amplitude of the pulsed carrier wave increases and becomes maximum when the amplitude of the modulating signal reaches at its maximum. Now the amplitude of the carrier wave starts decreasing with decrease in amplitude of the modulating signal. So it is clear from the image that the amplitude of the pulsed carrier wave varies according to the instantaneous value of the message signal.

## Important Observations about Pulse Amplitude Modulation (PAM)

#As it is Pulse Amplitude Modulation (PAM), therefore only the amplitude of the pulsed carrier changes. There is no change in the width or position of the pulsed carrier wave.

#SAMPLING THEOREM AND RECONSTRUCTION (SAMPLING AND QUANTIZATION)

So the width and position of the carrier wave pulse is constant here. Therefore we can say that, all the information of the modulating signal is contained in the amplitude variations of the pulses. No information is present in the width or position of the pulses.

## Pulse Time Modulation (PTM)

In pulse time modulation, the width or position of the pulsed carrier wave is varied (variations on the time axis) as per the changes in the amplitude of the modulating signal.
As we have discussed already that Pulse time modulation is of two types-

Pulse Position Modulation (PPM)

## Pulse Width Modulation (PWM)/Pulse Duration Modulation (PDM)

Definition:-
In Pulse width modulation, width (duration) of the pulses of the carrier wave is varied according to the modulating signal (message signal).
Now we will understand the waveform of pulse width modulation.

#Watch the VIDEOS PLAYLIST here (Pulse modulation Techniques)

Look at the image given below to see the waveform of pulse width modulated signal. (Click the image to enlarge)-

 Pulse Width Modulation Waveform

Here you can see waveforms of modulating signal, pulsed carrier wave and pulse width modulated wave.
As per the definition of pulse width modulation, we know that, in Pulse width modulation, the width of the pulses of carrier wave is varied according to the message signal. So you can see here in the image that as the amplitude of the message signal changes, the width of pulses of the pulsed carrier wave changes accordingly.
You can easily observe here, the width of the pulse is maximum when amplitude of the message signal is at maximum and in the same way, width is minimum when amplitude of the modulating signal is minimum.

## Important Observations about Pulse Width Modulation (PWM)

#Since it is pulse width modulation (pulse duration modulation), therefore only the width (duration) of the pulses of the carrier wave changes. No change takes place in amplitude or position of the pulses.
#As the width of pulses changes, according to the modulating signal; information is present only in the width of the pulses. In Pulse width modulation, amplitude or position of the pulses contain no information.

## Pulse Position Modulation (PPM)

Definition:-
In Pulse position modulation, the position of the pulsed carrier wave is varied according to the message signal (modulating signal).
Look at the waveforms shown in the image given below, (Click the image to enlarge)-

 Pulse Position Modulation Waveform

This image shows, the waveforms of modulating signal, pulsed carrier wave, pulse width modulated wave (PWM) and pulse position modulated wave (PPM).
Please note that, here we will obtain the pulse position modulated wave from the pulse width modulated wave.

#AMPLITUDE MODULATION (TIME DOMAIN EQUATIONS AND WAVEFORMS)

Therefore to draw the waveform of PPM we need to draw the waveform of PWM too.
Now observe the waveforms shown in the image.
Now we know how to obtain the waveform of pulse width modulated wave. So we will get the waveform of pulse position modulation from PWM.
As you can see in the image, that the starting point of each pulse in PPM waveform is obtained from the trailing edge of the PWM pulse. It means, each pulse in PPM starts where the PWM pulse ends (trailing edge of PWM pulse).

## Important Observations about Pulse Position Modulation

#It is important to note that in pulse position modulation, only the position of of the pulses changes as per the variations in amplitude of the modulating signal. There is no change in the amplitude or width of the pulses of the carrier wave. So the information about the modulating signal is present in the position variations of the pulses.
#Also note here that in pulse position modulation, synchronizing pulses need to be sent by the transmitter to keep the transmitter and receiver in synchronism.

#FREQUENCY SPECTRUM OF AMPLITUDE MODULATION (WAVEFORMS AND EQUATIONS DERIVATION)

This kind of synchronization is not required in case of pulse amplitude modulation or in Pulse width modulation.

## Pulse Code Modulation (PCM)

Now we will discuss the digital form of pulse modulation technique. This form of pulse modulation technique is known as Pulse Code Modulation (PCM).
Pulse code modulation is a technique to convert analog signals into digital signals.
After converting the signal into digital form, it becomes possible to transmit the digital signal through digital communication network and at the receiving end, it is converted back into it's original analog form.
Pulse code modulation process involves the following three stages -
#Sampling
#Quantization and
#Coding

#Digital Modulation Techniques (ASK, FSK, PSK, BPSK)/ Amplitude, Frequency and Phase Shift Keying

Now observe the image given below
(Click the image to enlarge)-

 Sampling and Quantization of analog signal

This image shows the following-
#Signal in its original analog form
#The sampled signal obtained after sampling of this analog signal and
#Quantized signal obtained after performing the quantization process.
Now we are going to discuss, the  process of sampling and quantization. During the discussion, please see the image carefully -
The first waveform given in the image is of the analog signal, that we want to transmit over the digital communication network. But since it is in analog form, therefore first it needs to be converted into digital form. So to do this job, we take the help of Pulse Code Modulation (PCM).

## Sampling of signal

The second part of this image, shows the sampled signal. In the process of sampling of the signal, we convert the continuous time signal into discrete time signal.

You can see this conversion in the sampled signal shown in the image. The analog signal was continuous in time, since it had some value at every instant of time. But in the sampled signal, which is discrete in time, the value of the signal is present only at certain instants of time. Accuracy of the sampling increases with increase in frequency of the sampling. But some sampling error is introduced because of this sampling process, since it is not possible to have infinite sampling frequency practically.
Sampling of the analog signal is performed with the help of sampling theorem. So let me define here, what is sampling theorem.

## Sampling Theorem

A continuous-time signal can be completely represented in its samples and recovered back into its original form if the sampling frequency is greater than or equal to twice the highest frequency present in the modulating signal (message signal).
It can be represented mathematically as-
fs >= 2fm
Here 'fs' is the sampling frequency and 'fm' is the highest frequency present in the modulating signal.

## Quantization of Signal

To understand the process of quantization look at the image given above. In the process of quantization, amplitude of the signal is cut horizontally into a number of fixed levels.